Publisher: Wikipedia 2014
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are flashes of gamma rays associated with extremely energetic explosions that have been observed in distant galaxies. They are the brightest electromagnetic events known to occur in the universe. Bursts can last from ten milliseconds to several minutes.
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by A. Biviano - arXiv
This is a review of the properties of galaxy systems as determined from optical and infrared measurements. Covered topics are: clusters identification, global cluster properties and their scaling relations, cluster internal structure, etc.
by Regina Schulte-Ladbeck, at al. - Hindawi Publishing
Dwarf galaxies provide opportunities for drawing inferences about the processes in the early universe by observing our Local Group and its vicinity. This issue is a snapshot of the current state of the art of dwarf-galaxy cosmology.
by F. Aharonian, A. Bykov, E. Parizot, V. Ptuskin, A. Watson - arXiv
We review sources of cosmic rays, their composition and spectra as well as their propagation in the galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields, both regular and fluctuating. A special attention is paid to the recent results of the observations.
by Alison L. Coil - arXiv
On large scales the Universe displays coherent structure, with galaxies residing in groups and clusters, which lie at the intersections of long filaments of galaxies. Vast regions of relatively empty space span the volume between these structures.