by Joseph Y. Halpern
Publisher: The MIT Press 2016
Number of pages: 240
In this book, Joseph Halpern explores actual causality, and such related notions as degree of responsibility, degree of blame, and causal explanation. The goal is to arrive at a definition of causality that matches our natural language usage and is helpful, for example, to a jury deciding a legal case, a programmer looking for the line of code that cause some software to fail, or an economist trying to determine whether austerity caused a subsequent depression.
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by Nick Bezhanishvili, Dick de Jongh - Universiteit van Amsterdam
In this course we give an introduction to intuitionistic logic. We concentrate on the propositional calculus mostly, make some minor excursions to the predicate calculus and to the use of intuitionistic logic in intuitionistic formal systems.
by Louis Couturat - Project Gutenberg
Mathematical Logic is a necessary preliminary to logical Mathematics. The present work is concerned with the 'calculus ratiocinator' aspect, and shows, in an admirably succinct form, the beauty of the calculus of logic regarded as an algebra.
by Bertrand Russell - University of Massachusetts Amherst
A very accessible mathematical classic. It sets forth in elementary form the logical definition of number, the analysis of the notion of order, the modern doctrine of the infinite, and the theory of descriptions and classes as symbolic fictions.
by Christopher Gauker - University of Cincinnati
This book is for anyone who has had a solid introductory logic course and wants more. Topics covered include soundness and completeness for first-order logic, Tarski's theorem on the undefinability of truth, Godel's incompleteness theorems, etc.