A Friendly Introduction to Number Theory
by Joseph H. Silverman
Publisher: Pearson Education, Inc. 2012
Number of pages: 56
An introductory undergraduate text designed to entice non-math majors into learning some mathematics, while at the same time teaching them how to think mathematically. The exposition is informal, with a wealth of numerical examples that are analyzed for patterns and used to make conjectures.
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by Allen Hatcher - Cornell University
An introductory textbook on elementary number theory from a geometric point of view, as opposed to the strictly algebraic approach. A fair amount of the book is devoted to studying Conway's topographs associated to quadratic forms in two variables.
by William Stein - Springer
Textbook on number theory and elliptic curves. It discusses primes, factorization, continued fractions, quadratic forms, computation, elliptic curves, their applications to algorithmic problems, and connections with problems in number theory.
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One might think that of all areas of mathematics arithmetic should be the simplest, but it is a surprisingly deep subject. It is assumed that students have some familiarity with set theory, calculus, and a certain amount of mathematical maturity.