Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy
by Bertrand Russell
Publisher: University of Massachusetts Amherst 2009
Number of pages: 181
This book is intended for those who have no previous acquaintance with the topics of which it treats, and no more knowledge of mathematics than can be acquired at a primary school. It sets forth in elementary form the logical definition of number, the analysis of the notion of order, the modern doctrine of the infinite, and the theory of descriptions and classes as symbolic fictions.
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An undergraduate college level textbook covering first order predicate logic with identity but omitting metalogical proofs. The first rules of formal logic were written over 2300 years ago by Aristotle and are still vital.
by Wolfgang Rautenberg - Springer
A well-written introduction to the beautiful and coherent subject. It contains classical material such as logical calculi, beginnings of model theory, and Goedel's incompleteness theorems, as well as some topics motivated by applications.
by P.D. Magnus
An introduction to sentential logic and first-order predicate logic with identity, logical systems that influenced twentieth-century analytic philosophy. The book should help students understand quantified expressions in their philosophical reading.
by Wolfram Pohlers, Thomas Glass
This text treats pure logic and in this connection introduces to basic proof-theoretic techniques. Fundamentals of model theory and those of recursion theory are dealt with. Furthermore, some extensions of first order logic are treated.