forall x: An Introduction to Formal Logic
by P.D. Magnus
Number of pages: 160
forall x is an introduction to sentential logic and first-order predicate logic with identity, logical systems that significantly influenced twentieth-century analytic philosophy. After working through the material in this book, a student should be able to understand most quantified expressions that arise in their philosophical reading.
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by Karlis Podnieks - University of Latvia
Textbook for students in mathematical logic and foundations of mathematics. Contents: Platonism, intuition and the nature of mathematics; Axiomatic Set Theory; First Order Arithmetic; Hilbert's Tenth Problem; Incompleteness Theorems; Godel's Theorem.
by Vilnis Detlovs, Karlis Podnieks - University of Latvia
From the table of contents: 1. Introduction. What Is Logic, Really?; 2. Propositional Logic; 3. Predicate Logic; 4. Completeness Theorems (Model Theory); 5. Normal Forms. Resolution Method; 6. Miscellaneous (Negation as Contradiction or Absurdity).
by Stefan Bilaniuk
An introduction to mathematical logic for undergraduates. It supplies definitions, statements of results, and problems, along with some explanations, examples, and hints. The idea is to learn the material by solving the problems.
An undergraduate college level textbook covering first order predicate logic with identity but omitting metalogical proofs. The first rules of formal logic were written over 2300 years ago by Aristotle and are still vital.